Libyan Crisis – Explained

Libya has been torn by violence and political instability since long-time ruler Muammar Gaddafi was toppled and killed by rebels in 2011. The crisis was triggered by the Arab Spring protests, a series of anti-government protests, uprisings and armed rebellions that spread across the Middle East in late 2010.

[Premium] Financial Action Task Force (FATF), Pakistan & Terror Financing – All You Need to Know

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the global watchdog that combats money laundering and terrorist financing, had grey listed Pakistan in June 2018 for not cutting down the finances of terrorist groups within its soil. Greylisting puts Pakistan under international scrutiny to prove its compliance with FATF norms. Notably, the greylisting move was initiated by the US.

Even with greylisting measures, Pulwama terror attack happened in February 2019 = FATF (with India’s lobbying) threatens Pakistan that it will be moved to the blacklist due to its failure to comply with the action plan which was due May 2019. Blacklisting could virtually cut all financial flows to Pakistan.

This big-picture article explains the following in an analytical manner with a mindmap for quick revision.

  1. What is the Financial Action Task Force (FATF)?
  2. How FATF works?
  3. What is the grey list and blacklist?
  4. What is the issue with Pakistan?
  5. Why the US initiated the move?
  6. What are the implications of placing Pakistan on FATF watchlist?
  7. Has Pakistan changed with external Pressures?
  8. Why has Pakistan failed to comply with or curtail terror funding?
  9. What is the way forward?

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The Anti-Defection Law: Explained

With the end of 16th Lok Sabha, it is time to reflect on how to make this institution more effective. A crucial step would be to review the Anti-Defection Law that made the institution less effective by affecting the independence of MPs/MLAs and removing any incentive for them to research and understand on policies which have the bearing on nation-building and development process.

[Premium] RTE (Amendment) Act, 2019: No-Detention Controversy

The Right to Education Act, 2009 prohibits the detention of children till they complete elementary education (class 8) as detention would lead them to drop out of school.

However, this provision is amended by the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (Amendment) Act, 2019 to state that a regular examination will be conducted in class 5 and class 8 at the end of every academic year.

  • If a child fails the exam, he/she will be provided with the additional opportunity to take a re-examination within two months.
  • Such children will be provided with two-month remedial teaching to perform better in the re-examinations.
  • If he/she fails in the re-examination too, then the central government or the concerned state government may decide to allow schools to detain the child.
  • This change is incorporated due to the concern that automatic promotion reduces the incentive for children to learn and for teachers to teach.

This big-picture article explains the following in an analytical manner with a mindmap for quick revision:

  1. What is the no detention policy under the RTE Act?
  2. What are the advantages of No-detention policy?
  3. What are the disadvantages of no-detention policy? / Need for its removal?
  4. What are the concerns with the amendment?
  5. What is the way forward? / How to improve learning outcomes?

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[Updated] [Premium] India-Maldives Relations: Complete Analysis

Recently, the new government in the Maldives expressed its indebtedness towards China due to the latter’s construction activities in the Maldives. However, Maldives also has fears over the unsustainable Chinese debts. Notably, the new president, Ibrahim Mohamed Solih, wants to restore ties with India. Hence the situation in Male (Maldives’ capital) provides both opportunities and risks to India.

This big-picture article explains the following in an analytical manner with a mindmap for quick revision.

  1. About the Maldives
  2. What is the political background of Maldives?
  3. What is the importance of the Maldives for India?
  4. What are the areas of cooperation?
  5. What are the areas of contention?
  6. The President of Maldives's visit to India in December 2018.

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[Premium] Plastic Pollution – The Great Threat to Environment & Ecosystem

Plastic Pollution is the accumulation of synthetic plastic products in the environment to the point where they create problems for wildlife and their habitats as well as for human populations.

In 1907, the invention of Bakelite brought about a revolution in the materials by introducing truly synthetic plastic resins into world commerce.

However, by the end of the 20th century, plastics have become persistent polluters of different environmental niches, from Mount Everest to the bottom of the sea.

Whether being mistaken for food by animals, flooding low-lying areas by clogging drainage systems, or simply causing considerable aesthetic damage, plastics have attracted increasing global attention as a large-scale pollutant.

Millions of tonnes of plastic enter the seas each year, choking whales and other creatures, much of it in Asia. Plastic pollution has been found across the globe, from the most remote oceanic islands to high Swiss peaks. Microplastics/Microbeads have now also been found in tap water and human food around the world, with unknown implications for health.

This big-picture article explains the following in an analytical manner with a mindmap for quick revision.

  1. What is the magnitude of the plastic pollution problem?
  2. What are the major causes of plastic pollution?
  3. What are the effects of Plastic pollution?
  4. What are some of the international initiatives against plastic litter?
  5. What are India’s initiatives?
  6. What are the challenges in tackling plastic waste debris?
  7. What are the solutions?

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